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Outcome 1

Analyse the intentions of media creators and producers and the influences of narratives on the audience in different media forms. 

       Examples of learning activities

  • Investigate the personal style of two different media creators and/or producers and their narrative style. How has the selected media form and its codes and conventions influenced the personal style of the creator and/or producer? What characteristics of the media form contribute to their individual style? Students draw up a grid analysis chart to structure their investigation. 

      Steven Spielberg   


      Martin Scorcese 


      Quentin Tarantino  

      James Cameron 

  • Create an audio or written commentary for an image, scene or sequence from two narratives, explaining the style and genre of the products, the codes and conventions manipulated to construct the personal style. The presentation could be in digital or print form. The scene, image, or sequence could be from moving images, still photographs or a digital product. 

  • Select two products in different media forms. Storyboard an additional scene in the same genre and style for each media product. Make an argument as to why this scene would be appropriate to be included in the narrative, reference the manipulation of codes and conventions by the media creator. 

  • Investigate the institutional, social and technological opportunities and constraints navigated by a media creator to produce their work, or evaluate the opportunities and constraints in a range of media forms and discuss their differences. Reflective thinking tools such as the SWOT analysis could be used to analyse the information. 

  • Examine how the styles of media products are influenced by the social and cultural contexts in which they are created or produced. This can include the context in which the product is created and viewed both by the creator or producer and the audience. Examples include: 

  • traditional Film Noir, and German Expressionism, such as Metropolis (Lang, 1927) and The Third Man (Reed, 1949), compared with a contemporary neo Noir TV show, such as Jessica Jones (Rosenberg, 2015) or a video game such as L.A. Noire (Rockstar Games, 2011)

  • social influences on photographers such as Diane Arbus, Lisette Model, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lang, Edward Weston and William Eggleston and contemporary photographers such as Barbara Kruger, Gillian Wearing, David Rosetsky, Loretta Lux and the Guerilla Girls

  • social influences on comics such as Phantom and Magnum in the portrayal of characters and graphic style.

  • Select a range of favourite narratives in media products across a range of media forms. Identify why these are of personal interest. Evaluate the construction of the narrative and the media codes and conventions used to engage audiences. Investigate a similar narrative in other media forms, for example: film and photography, documentaries, horror genre or multicultural representation.


  • Students create a video or photographic essay in the style of a screen artist, animator, game creator, digital producer or photographer in a specific style or genre. The video or photographic essay explores the common codes and conventions used by the creator or producer and how these influence audience engagement, reception and consumption.

  • Research the production design of Catherine Martin across a range of films. Identify her specific style and how it influences the construction of a narrative. Students create a production design for a film in the same genre. Identify the similarities between Martin’s films and the student production.

  • Compare Kaufman’s live action film Synecodoche, New York (2008) against his animated film Anomalisa (2015). Analyse the construction of the narrative in both films and the social, political and institutional constraints that influence the style of the animations.

  • Choosing a specific media product by a media creator or producer, students create a poster with annotations identifying the influence of social, economic political and institutional contexts.

  • Students create a filmumentary; an edit of a film, which includes sections of behind the scenes, interviews and audio commentaries that identify the influences of social, economic, institutional and political factors on the creation and production of the film. 

  • Create a poster that maps a film narrative against a common narrative structure such as Joseph Campbell’s The Hero’s Journey, Kurt Vonnegut’s The Shapes of Stories or Blake Snyder’s Save The Cat.

  • Students create a zine about a media creator and explore how it is shaped by institutional, economic, social and/or political factors and constraints in the pre-production, production and post-production stages of the Media production process.

  • Investigate the work of a range of photojournalists such as Rennie Ellis, Narelle Autio, Trente Park, Damien Parer and Frank Hurley. Discuss the intentions and the individual photographic style of their work. How was their work influenced by the social, political and economic factors and constraints in the time in which they were working?


      Detailed example


      Video or photographic essay

Students create a short video essay or a series of images on a screen based media creator, producer or photographer. The essay explores the style of the media product, the use of codes and conventions and the influence of factors and constraints in the pre-production, production and post-production stages. Students analyse the characteristics of the style of the product and what makes it engaging to the audience.

Students research their chosen photographer or screen based creator or producer by reading relevant interviews, books and articles, and watching documentaries, behind the scenes specials and listening to audio commentaries. The chosen creator may produce online print productions or convergent or hybridised media forms. Students make notes on the use of codes and conventions under the headings: Pre-production, Production and Post-production.

Using their research, students plan their video essay addressing the following prompts:

  • How have social, economic and institutional factors, constraints and the use of codes and conventions in each stage of production shaped the distinctive style of the photographer, producer or creator?

  • How can the use of these codes and conventions be seen or evolve through different works of the photographer, creator or producer?

  • Why do the use of these codes and conventions in this specific way appeal to you personally as an audience member?

Planning should be done in a two column script, one column to include the voice over script or accompanying text and the other column to document what visuals will be on the screen or page. A storyboard is developed with annotations detailing composition of images, shot angles, lighting, costumes and props.

Students collate the footage or images they need for their essay, record their voiceovers or write the accompanying text. Students reflect on the style of their production and what would be most engaging or appropriate for their audience.

Students reflect upon their final product and evaluate the characteristics of the style they have developed by referencing the social, political, economic and institutional constraints on the product, the construction of the narrative and the use of relevant media codes and conventions.




Unit 2 – Area of Study 2: Narratives in production


Outcome 2

Apply the media production process to create, develop and construct narratives. 


       Examples of learning activities

  • Inspired by the themes, ideas, genre and/or style of a specific media creator, complete pre-production exercises, including scripting, layout, planning, storyboards, visual and written documentation for a media production.


  • Select a different media form than from the one researched in Area of Study 1. Design and create a narrative in the media form substituting and changing traditional codes and conventions of a specific style of genre, for example:

  • a photography series in the style of Tarantino

  • an animation in the style of Coppola

  • a print production about a media creator working only with digital content

  • a hybridised product such as a series of social media posts, tweets or an Instagram feed about a documentary photographer

  • a website for a media production company or media creator.

  • Working in groups, students use a generic script or prompt to make a video or photographic sequence for different audiences in different styles or genres.

  • In groups, create a media product that is a mash-up of different creator styles that students have researched. It might have the editing style of Casey Neistat, with the lighting of a Film Noir and the character styles from a Wes Anderson film or the style of Instagram artist Amelia Aulman.

  • Create a class zine, where each page spread is done by a different student in a different style. Each student reflects on the codes, conventions, style and genre used for their individual pages. 

  • Reverse engineer a podcast, advertising campaign, photography or film scene to emulate the style of the original as closely as possible.

  • Experiment with practical and digital special effects in a specific media form to decide which style resembles the work of a researched media creator or producer. 

  • Write a treatment for a sequel for a media product that students have researched in Area of Study 1.

  • Research and undertake specific roles in the Media production process in specific media forms.

  • In a diary, document the creation and development of a media product and the stages of the Media production process using screenshots, behind the scenes photography or a time-lapse documenting the specific technologies, codes and conventions used in the production and distribution of the media product. 

  • Reflect on the three stages of the Media production process and the industry roles involved in each stage. Evaluate the codes and conventions used to create and develop the media product and their relevance at each stage of the process. 

  • Research the production process for a specific media form and the specific audience, context and location for a product in the form. Develop a distribution plan for the media product, considering the target audience and the ethical, legal and community constraints. 

  • Research the Australian Classification system according to the Australian Classification Board. Classify a student created media product using the classification system. Evaluate the opportunities and constraints the rating invokes for the product.

      Detailed example


      Style substitution

Explore the aesthetic and structural qualities of a media creator or producer such as Quentin Tarantino, Sofia Coppola, François Truffaut or Ava DuVernay or a photographer such as Polly Borland, Wes Stacey, Barbara Kruger, Annie Leibovitz or Anne Zalhalka. Make notes of the codes and conventions used in their work and the characteristics that makes their style distinctive.

Investigate the codes and conventions of another media form, such as photography, animation, print production, radio drama or video game.

Design and make a media product using the aesthetic or structural qualities of the chosen media creator, using the codes and conventions of another media form. Examples could be:

  • a four frame photography series manipulating the camera techniques and mise en scene to reference a specific director

  • a three minute film based on the photographic processes used by a selected photographer with a similar choice of subject matter, genre and style

  • a twenty second stop motion animation using: 

    • an edited series of vox pop interviews exploring a theme or an idea prevalent in the director's work

    • a two minute radio drama relying on the sound techniques to explore an emotion manipulated by the director

    • a video game character and storyline game mapping inspired by a director.

  • a print production of up to five pages with planned layout, text and images that references the work of a photographer or director. 

  • a hybrid or convergent media product such as a series of social media posts for Facebook, Instagram or Twitter, including scripting and planning of text and imagery, based on the work of a director, photographic artist or documentary photographer.

Reflect on the process of designing and producing the media exercises. The following can be used in the evaluation:

  • How was the style of the media creator manipulated for a different media form? Discuss the use of media codes and conventions and the construction of a narrative.

  • Explain the challenges and opportunities in the design and production of a media narrative.

  • What was the most challenging phase of the Media production process?

  • Explain the industry roles and responsibilities you undertook.

  • Describe the technical skills and technologies you used in your production.

  • Explain how your media product would be distributed and reflect on community and legal issues of regulation.

  • Identify specific audiences that would be engaged by your media product and justify why certain distribution platforms would be most suitable.


Unit 2 – Area of Study 3: Media and change

Outcome 3

Discuss the influence of new media technologies on society, audiences, the individual, media industries and institutions. 

Examples of learning activities

  • Identify new media technologies and discuss their impact on current media technologies. Some examples include: the impact of smart phones on photo journalism, video on demand streaming on broadcast television and television as a media form, the impact of social media on journalism and the impact of virtual reality on traditional gaming.

  • Create a homage to an outdated piece of media technology inspired short film ‘Dead Ringer’ (Alex Kliment, 2016) on the demise of New York City’s pay phones. 

  • Survey digital media audiences and identify their characteristics. Analyse the impact technology has on these audiences. Plan and develop a media product that would be distributed to a digital media audience using a new piece of media technology, such as a smart phone app for primary school children, or a social media platform for teenagers.

  • Collect and analyse articles about social, ethical, and legal issues in the media industry in different media forms. Compare the issues in different media forms such as film versus photography, digital versus analogue.

  • Review the virtual reality documentary Collisions (Wallworth, 2016). Describe how new media technologies impacted the media form and genre of documentary. Analyse how a new media technology may influence another media form or genre.

  • Analyse the production and distribution of a traditional media product and then reimagine how it would be distributed using new technologies. Analyse how the product would impact upon individuals and society.


  • Research a current digital media platform. Create an audio report discussing how the platform has disrupted the traditional media industry.

  • Investigate current media based crowdfunding ventures in video games, on line print publications, short films and documentaries. Make an oral presentation that argues why the venture is worthwhile, why it may or may not be successful and how crowdfunding platforms have changed the way that media products can receive funding.

  • Research the work of media creators on social media platforms such as YouTube and Instagram. Discuss the social, legal and ethical constraints the creators work under. What advantages do these creators have using social media over traditional media platforms?

  • Interview different media audiences and create a documentary analysing the characteristics of audiences, their reception and consumption of media. How has audience reception and consumption changed with the developments in media technologies?

  • Inspired by the Snapchat horror Sickhouse (Macpherson, 2016), the Instagram series The Out There (Lehmann, 2017) or a photo documentary series on Twitter, Facebook or Instagram use the codes and conventions of a social media platform to construct a narrative.

  • Analyse the history of animation or special effects in a range of media products over the last 50 years and create a video or photographic timeline of the development of the technologies using specific examples from the selected media form.

  • Analyse a current legal, ethical or social issue in the media. Identify the audiences that are influenced by the issue and discuss how they engage and interact with media technologies.

  • Read the article on the ‘Internet of Things’ published on the Forbes business website. Identify one domestic appliance that can connect to the Internet such as a television, refrigerator, coffee machine, lamp or washing machine. Explain how this may influence individuals and society and the associated legal and ethical issues.

  • Identify and analyse the newest media technology used to communicate to and engage with audiences such as smart phones, smart televisions and interactive digital devices. Explain how this technology has impacted on digital media audiences.

  • Research an issue with media technology. Discuss the different ethical viewpoints expressed by members of the class and write up a table comparing them. The issue and the discussion could be presented as an oral debate.

  • Complete a case study of a media industry or institution. Examine commercial, regulatory and political characteristics of the industry or institution. Discuss any arising social, ethical and legal issues in the selected industry or institution that could be resolved using new media technologies. Create a media product that resolves these issues using new media technologies.

      Detailed example


      Media disruption

 Students create an audio report or podcast about how a media technology or platform has disrupted the traditional             business of a media industry and changed the engagement, interaction and habits of audiences. Examples include:

  • how online stores and streaming music services has disrupted the music industry and how audiences listen to music

  • how online news sites and social media has disrupted the journalism industry and how audiences consume news

  • how streaming video sites and on demand services has disrupted the television and film industries and how audiences watch this content

  • how targeted ads online has disrupted the advertising industry and how brands interact with audiences

  • how internet platforms have disrupted the magazine, zine and/or graphic novel industry and changed the way audiences read publications

  • how online photographic stock sites have disrupted the way creators and individuals purchase and use photographic images in publications.

Audio programs to explore different styles of audio form reporting:

The following prompts will assist students in researching media industries:

  • Describe the new media platform or technology. How is it different to the traditional media industry?

  • Explore how this new media platform or technology changes the expectations, habits and engagement of the audiences that use it.

  • Discuss what effect this new media platform or technology will have or already has had on the traditional media industry.

  • Are there any social, legal or ethical issues with the use of this platform or technology?

  • How has the traditional media industry reacted to the new media or technology?

  • What are your predictions looking into the future?

When planning their audio segment, students can use different segments such as interviews with experts, excerpts from other sources and vox pops.

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